# Writing CSV Data¶

## The Writer class¶

The Writer class is the main workhorse for writing CSV data to any number of output sources. Instantiating a writer is very similar to instantiating a Reader object. You simply instantiate any class that implements the Contracts\Writable interface [1] and use that to instantiate a writer object.

Let’s assume we want to write a CSV file called ./data/products.csv. We would need to instantiate a IO\Stream object pointing to that file, making sure to supply the “w” access mode to open the file in write mode (you could also use the “a” mode if you want to append a stream rather than write a new one [2]). Let’s see how that looks:

// we use "w" access mode string to open stream in write mode
$out = new IO\Stream('./data/products.csv', 'w');$writer = new Writer($out);  You could do the same thing using CSVelte’s writer factory method. $writer = CSVelte::writer('./data/products.csv');


## Setting the flavor¶

If you want to use a specific flavor of CSV (rather than the standard Flavor class), you can do so by passing a Flavor object (or an associative array of flavor attributes) as the second parameter to the writer’s constructor and the writer will write CSV according to your specified flavor. See Flavors of CSV for more on flavors and formatting.

 $out = new IO\Stream('./data/products.csv', 'w');$flavor = new Flavor(['delimiter' => "\t"]);
$writer = new Writer($out, $flavor);  As I mentioned before, it is also acceptable to pass an associative array to the writer class rather than an Flavor object to override the default flavor’s attributes. Here, we will override the standard delimiter, which is a comma, and use a tab character instead. $out = new IO\Stream('./data/products.csv', 'w');
$writer = new Writer($out, ['delimiter' => "\t"]);


We can shave off even more keystrokes by using CSVelte’s writer factory method to generate our writer for us. As long as you don’t need some custom stream output or something, this is the quickest and easiest way and it works just fine. Again, you can pass either a Flavor object or an associative array of flavor attributes as the second parameter.

$writer = CSVelte::writer('./data/products.csv', new Flavor\ExcelTab); // or...$writer = CSVelte::writer('./data/products.csv', ['delimiter' => "\t"]);


## Writing a single row¶

Once you’ve instantiated a Writer object, you can use the Writer::writeRow() method to write CSV line-by-line. You simply pass it an array or traversable (just be sure it contains the correct number of fields in the correct order [3]).

<?php
$out = new IO\Stream('./data/products.csv', 'w');$writer = new Writer($out); // you can pass an array...$writer->writeRow(['one', 2, 'three', 'fore']);
// or any traversable object, so long as it contains the correct number of fields...
$writer->writeRow(new ArrayIterator(['five', 'sicks', '7 "ate" 9', 10]));  Depending on the Flavor object you use, this should output something along the lines of: one,2,three,fore five,sicks,"7 ""ate"" 9",10  ## Writing multiple rows¶ If you have a two-dimensional array or any other traversable tabular data [4], you can pass it to the Writer::writeRows() method to write multiple rows at once. <?php$out = new IO\Stream('./data/albums.csv', 'w');
$writer = new Writer($out);
$writer->writeRows([ ['Lateralus', 'Tool', 2001, 'Volcano Entertainment'], ['Wish You Were Here', 'Pink Floyd', 1975, 'Columbia'], ['The Fragile', 'Nine Inch Nails', 1999, 'Interscope'] ]);  Depending on your Flavor attributes, this should output something along the lines of: Lateralus,Tool,2001,Volcano Entertainment Wish You Were Here,Pink Floyd,1975,Columbia The Fragile,Nine Inch Nails,1999,Interscope  ## Setting the header row¶ CSV files allow an optional header row to designate labels for each column within the data. If present, it should always be the first row in the data. You can go about writing your header row one of two ways. You can do it implicitly, by simply making sure the first row you write is your header row, like so: $out = new IO\Stream('./data/albums.csv', 'w');
$writer = new Writer($out);
$writer->writeRows([ ['Album', 'Artist', 'Year', 'Label'], ['Lateralus', 'Tool', 2001, 'Volcano Entertainment'], ['Wish You Were Here', 'Pink Floyd', 1975, 'Columbia'], ['The Fragile', 'Nine Inch Nails', 1999, 'Interscope'] ]);  But if you prefer to be explicit, like I do, you may use the Writer::setHeaderRow() method. Just be sure to call it before writing any other rows to your output. $out = new IO\Stream('./data/albums.csv');
$writer = new Writer($out);
$writer->setHeaderRow(['Album', 'Artist', 'Year', 'Label']);$writer->writeRows([
['Lateralus', 'Tool', 2001, 'Volcano Entertainment'],
['Wish You Were Here', 'Pink Floyd', 1975, 'Columbia'],
['The Fragile', 'Nine Inch Nails', 1999, 'Interscope']
]);


This does the exact same thing as the first approach did, only it’s more explicit and more clear to any programmer who comes along later, what you are trying to do.

Danger

You must be careful not to call Writer::setHeaderRow() after data has already been written to the output source. That is to say, after any calls to Writer::writeRow() or Writer::writeRows(). This will trigger an Exception\WriterException.

## Using reader and writer together¶

The reader and writer classes are very useful by themselves, but when you combine them, you can really start to see the power and usability of CSVelte. Let’s take a look at a few ways you can use Reader and Writer together to accomplish common tasks.

### Reformatting by changing flavor¶

As I mentioned before, Writer::writeRows() accepts either an array of arrays or any tabular data structure. Instances of the Reader class, by design, fall within the second category. This means that you can instantiate a reader object and pass it to Writer::writeRows() as a means to either filter out certain rows, change its flavor (formatting), or both. Let’s take a look at a few examples.

<?php
// create our reader object, allowing it to automatically determine CSV flavor
$reader = CSVelte::reader("./data/albums.csv"); // now create a writer object, passing it an explicit flavor we want to reformat to$writer = CSVelte::writer("./data/albums.tsv", new Flavor\ExcelTab());

// now you can simply pass the reader object to writeRows to get a tab-delimited file
$writer->writeRows($reader);


### Filtering out unwanted rows¶

As demonstrated in Reading CSV Data, you can use the Reader::addFilter() method to attach any number of anonymous functions to your reader to filter out unwanted rows. You can then iterate your filtered reader using the Reader::filter() method. Again, because Writer::writeRows() can accept any traversable tabular data structure, you can pass the return value of Reader::filter() to Writer::writeRows() to write a new CSV file, less your unwanted rows.

 // create our reader object
$reader = CSVelte::reader("./data/albums.csv"); // this will filter out all but 90's albums$reader->addFilter(function($row) { return ($row['Year'] >= 1990 && $row['Year'] < 2000); }); // now create a writer object, pointing to a new "90s-albums.csv" file$writer = CSVelte::writer("./data/90s-albums.csv");

// now you can simply pass the reader object to writeRows to get a CSV
// file with only 90's albums from the original CSV file
$writer->writeRows($reader->filter());


Footnotes

 [1] CSVelte only ships with one class that implements the Contract\Writable interface, and that is IO\Stream – see CSV Streams for more about that class
 [2] See the fopen file modes section on php.net for more possible stream/file access modes.
 [3] Every row in a CSV dataset should contain the same number of fields in the same order. For full description of CSV format, see “What is CSV?“
 [4] Tabular data, in this context, refers to any traversable two-dimensional data structure. Each set of traversables must contain the same number of fields, in the same order or an exception will be thrown